At a friend’s bicycle shop one night he gave me a calcomanía with his name on it. The only way I had heard this term used was to indicate branding of an item by placing a sticker with the seller’s product name on it. However, the word calcomanía can be used for any kind of sticker. It is not just used for branding purposes.
The only person I have heard use this word regularly is my bicycle friend and he is closer to 90 years old than he is to 80. From my reading I have discovered that the word calcomanía is an older word that has been replaced by the word pegatina or sticker in Argentina. Yes, that is sticker as in the English word sticker.
Calcomanía then means a sticker of just about any type, but it is apparently more popular with the older generation than it is with younger people in Argentina.